.: Human Rights - Laws against torture
 

Human rights refer to the "basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled." [1] Examples of rights and freedoms which have come to be commonly thought of as human rights include

1. civil and political rights , such as the right to life and liberty , freedom of expression , and equality before the law ; and

2. economic, social and cultural rights , including the right to participate in culture , the right to food , the right to work , and the right to education

United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is the only multilateral governmental agency with universally accepted international jurisdiction for universal human rights legislation. [16] Human rights are primarily governed by

1. United Nations Security Council

2. United Nations Human Rights Council , and there are numerous committees within the UN with responsibilities for safeguarding different human rights treaties

The United Nations has an international mandate to:

...achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion

The International Bill of Human Rights consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights , and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its two Optional Protocols.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR ) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (10 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot , Paris). The Guinness Book of Records describes the UDHR as the "Most Translated Document" [1] in the world. The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are respectfully entitled to. It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws.

The following is an abridged version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948. Although the Declaration, which comprises a broad range of rights, is not a legally binding document, it has inspired more than 60 human rights instruments which together constitute an international standard of human rights. These instruments include the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights , both of which are legally binding treaties. Together with the Universal Declaration, they constitute the International Bill of Rights.

1. 

We are all free and equal. We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way.

 

 

2. 

Don't discriminate. These rights belong to everybody, whatever our differences.

 

 

3. 

The right to life. We all have the right to life, and to live in freedom and safety.

 

 

4. 

Slavery - past and present. Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make anyone our slave.

 

 

5. 

Torture. Nobody has any right to hurt us or to torture us.

 

 

6. 

We all have the same right to use the law. I am a person just like you!

 

 

7. 

We are all protected by the law. The law is the same for everyone. It must treat us all fairly.

 

 

8. 

Fair treatment by fair courts. We can all ask for the law to help us when we are not treated fairly.

 

 

9. 

Unfair detainment. Nobody has the right to put us in prison without a good reason and keep us there, or to send us away from our country.

 

 

10. 

The right to trial. If we are put on trial this should be in public. The people who try us should not let anyone tell them what to do.

 

 

11. 

Innocent until proven guilty. Nobody should be blamed for doing something until it is proven. When people say we did a bad thing we have the right to show it is not true.

 

 

12. 

The right to privacy. Nobody should try to harm our good name. Nobody has the right to come into our home, open our letters or bother us or our family without a good reason.

 

 

13. 

Freedom to move. We all have the right to go where we want in our own country and to travel as we wish.

 

 

14. 

The right to asylum. If we are frightened of being badly treated in our own country, we all have the right to run away to another country to be safe.

 

 

15. 

The right to a nationality. We all have the right to belong to a country.

 

 

16. 

Marriage and family. Every grown-up has the right to marry and have a family if they want to. Men and women have the same rights when they are married, and when they are separated.

 

 

17. 

Your own things. Everyone has the right to own things or share them. Nobody should take our things from us without a good reason.

 

 

18. 

Freedom of thought. We all have the right to believe in what we want to believe, to have a religion, or to change it if we want.

 

 

19. 

Free to say what you want. We all have the right to make up our own minds, to think what we like, to say what we think, and to share our ideas with other people.

 

 

20. 

Meet where you like. We all have the right to meet our friends and to work together in peace to defend our rights. Nobody can make us join a group if we don't want to.

 

 

21. 

The right to democracy. We all have the right to take part in the government of our country. Every grown-up should be allowed to choose their own leaders.

 

 

22. 

The right to social security. We all have the right to affordable housing, medicine, education, and child care, enough money to live on and medical help if we are ill or old.

 

 

23. 

Workers' rights. Every grown-up has the right to do a job, to a fair wage for their work, and to join a trade union.

 

 

24. 

The right to play. We all have the right to rest from work and to relax.

 

 

25. 

A bed and some food. We all have the right to a good life. Mothers and children, people who are old, unemployed or disabled, and all people have the right to be cared for.

 

 

26. 

The right to education. Education is a right. Primary school should be free. We should learn about the United Nations and how to get on with others. Our parents can choose what we learn.

 

 

27. 

Culture and copyright. Copyright is a special law that protects one's own artistic creations and writings; others cannot make copies without permission. We all have the right to our own way of life and to enjoy the good things that "art," science and learning bring.

 

 

28. 

A free and fair world. There must be proper order so we can all enjoy rights and freedoms in our own country and all over the world.

 

 

29. 

Our responsibilities. We have a duty to other people, and we should protect their rights and freedoms.

 

 

30. 

Nobody can take away these rights and freedoms from us.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICCPR is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976 .

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is monitored by the Human Rights Committee (a separate body to the Human Rights Council which replaced the Commission on Human Rights under the UN Charter in 2006) with permanent standing, to consider periodic reports submitted by member States on their compliance with the treaty. Members of the Human Rights Committee are elected by member states, but do not represent any State.

The Covenant contains two Optional Protocols.

The first optional protocol creates an individual complaints mechanism whereby individuals in member States can submit complaints, known as communications, to be reviewed by the Human Rights Committee . Its rulings under the first optional protocol have created the most complex jurisprudence in the UN international human rights law system.

The second optional protocol abolishes the death penalty; however, countries were permitted to make a reservation allowing for use of death penalty for the most serious crimes of a military nature, committed during wartime [1] .

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 16, 1966, and in force from January 3, 1976. It commits its parties to work toward the granting of economic, social, and cultural rights (ESCR) to individuals, including labour rights and rights to health, education, and an adequate standard of living. As of December, 2008, the Covenant had 160 parties. A further six countries had signed, but not yet ratified the Covenant.

The ICESCR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights , along with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), including the latter's first and second Optional Protocols. The Covenant is monitored by the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights .

 
 
rds="293,10,350,23" href="disclaimer.htm">